Wen X, et al. Neurosci Bull 2020.
Expansions of trinucleotide or hexanucleotide repeats lead to several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington disease [caused by expanded CAG repeats (CAGr) in the HTT gene], and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS, possibly caused by expanded GGGGCC repeats (G4C2r) in the C9ORF72 gene], of which the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that lowering the Drosophila homologue of tau protein (dtau) significantly rescued in vivo neurodegeneration, motor performance
impairments, and the shortened life-span in Drosophila expressing expanded CAGr or expanded G4C2r. Expression of human tau (htau4R) restored the disease-related phenotypes that had been mitigated by the loss of dtau, suggesting an evolutionarily-conserved role of tau in neurodegeneration. We further revealed that G4C2r expression increased tau accumulation by inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion, possibly due to lowering the level of BAG3, a regulator of autophagy and tau. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which expanded G4C2r causes neurodegeneration via an evolutionarily-conserved mechanism. Our findings provide novel autophagy-related mechanistic insights into C9ORF72-ALS and possible entry points to disease treatment.