Urinary hyaluronic acid: a versatile marker of bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer

El-Hefnawy AS, et al. Int Urol Nephrol 2020.


PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of urinary hyaluronic acid (HA) as a diagnostic marker in urothelial carcinoma (UCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and adenocarcinoma (ADC) of urinary bladder and compare it with urine cytology.

METHODS: HA was estimated in 170 subjects divided into three groups. Group I: UCC 88 patients, 28 with SCC and 12 with ADC; group II: 34 patients with benign bladder tumors; and group III: 10 healthy bladders. HA was estimated in urine and then readjusted to creatinine (HA/Cr) and protein (HA/Pr) in urine. Urine cytology was evaluated.

RESULTS: The mean ± SD level HA was higher in UCC (589 ± 72), SCC (637 ± 45), and ADC (526 ± 30) as compared with benign (476 ± 92) and normal (277 ± 44) groups regardless the grade of tumor (p < 0.0001). A cutoff value of 490 ng/ml was calculated to detect malignancy with sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 66%. PPV, NPV, and ACC were 88.6%, 94.1%, and 90%, respectively. Urine cytology showed sensitivity of, specificity, PPV, NPV, and ACC of 52.6%, 90%, 90.45, 50%, and 65.5%, respectively. HA/Pr and HA/Cr, cutoff values for detection of malignancy were 84.9 and 9.6 but with less predictive values. Histopathological type was the only independent factor affecting level of HA on multivariate analysis, (p = 0.012, Exp (B) 14.98, 95% CI 1.8-121).

CONCLUSION: Combination of urinary HA and urine cytology provides reliable marker of bladder cancer.