Intra-arterial versus negative-staining of embryonal resection borders with indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence for total mesorectal excision in colorectal cancer - an experimental feasibility study in a porcine model

Bladder Cancer

Frank AHR, et al. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 2020.


Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Laparoscopic lower rectal resections in accordance with the oncological principles are recommended as the gold standard for CRC surgical management. However, the learning curve for adopting these techniques is quite steep and the incomplete resections are predictive of local recurrence. This study was conducted in an attempt to find a way to help surgeons to overcome some of these difficulties and define the right resection margins.Material and methods: As such, we carried out two laparoscopic lower rectal resections in porcine models. The first resection was performed following the ligation and selective infusion of Indocyanine Green (ICG) into the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), and the second after the ligation of both inferior mesenteric artery and vein (IMV) and systemic intravenous infusion of ICG. Fluorescence was detected in real time by means of an infrared imaging system.Results: Sharp resection margins were defined after intra-arterial infusion, and all the tissues in the IMA basin were colored in the first case. In the second model every organ and tissue was colored except the rectum, urinary bladder and ductus deferens.Conclusions: Although systemic intra-venous application of ICG and negative-staining of the rectum including the mesorectum is much easier compared to laparoscopic inter-arterial perfusion through IMA, image results of selevtive IMA-perfusion appear in sharper discrimination of the several layers. Further investigation should focus on simplifying this technique.