Koch GE, et al. Urology 2020 - Review.
The heterogenous nature of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer encompasses a wide range of tumor biologies with varying recurrence and progression risks. Radical cystectomy provides excellent oncologic outcomes but is often underutilized. Timing for these patients is critical, however, to its effectiveness. Certain unfavorable tumor characteristics predict worse outcomes and may help select the most appropriate patients for more aggressive initial therapy. This manuscript aims to
outline factors that predict worse outcomes in high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and proposes which patients may benefit most from a timely radical cystectomy.