Photodynamic diagnosis and therapy for urothelial carcinoma and prostate cancer: new imaging technology and therapy

Bladder Cancer
26/05/2020

Fukuhara H, et al. Int J Clin Oncol 2020 - Review.

ABSTRACT

Photodynamic technology using light-sensitive and fluorescent substances has an important role in an accurate diagnosis for a variety of malignancies, including bladder cancer and prostate cancer. Light-sensitive and fluorescent substances accumulate specifically in tumor cells compared to normal tissue, and by light irradiation and excitation at each specific wavelength, tumor lesion, blood flow, lymph node and so on show fluorescence. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin


IX (PpIX) into mitochondria. PpIX is excited by blue light, red fluorescence is emitted in the mitochondria. This phenomenon is the mechanism of ALA-mediated photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD). ALA-PDD has made it possible to visualize smaller lesions and flat lesions that were previously difficult to visualize by endoscope using a white-light source. So accurate diagnosis and complete resection become possible during operation. The accumulation of PpIX in the mitochondria also induces direct mitochondrial damage and subsequent cell death by red and green light. This biological reaction is the ALA-mediate photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). ALA-PDT has been developed as a modality for minimum invasive cancer treatment that utilizes low-energy light and photosensitizer. Vascular-activated photosensitizer induces rapid tumor ablation by PDT involving direct tumor cell killing as well as damage to the exposed microvasculature. We summarize the clinical outcomes of PDD and PDT for urothelial carcinoma and prostate cancer.