Wolf J, et al. Gynecol Oncol Rep 2020.
Primary vaginal endometrioid adenocarcinoma is a rare cancer that is often associated with chronic endometriosis. We present the case of a 72-year-old female who underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by hysterectomy with benign pathology 25 years prior to her cancer diagnosis. She had an extensive surgical history in the intervening years and several complicating factors including a history of endometriosis as well as a recurrent peritoneal inclusion cyst treated with ethanol
sclerotherapy, followed by formation of a peritoneal-vaginal fistula. Endometriosis is associated with malignant transformation to endometrioid adenocarcinoma through genomic alteration, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperestrogenism. Frequency of surveillance examinations and imaging prior to diagnosis were based on patient symptoms, and ultimately a vaginal cuff mass was detected with invasion of the rectosigmoid colon, bladder and levators at time of diagnosis, necessitating infralevator total pelvic exenteration for removal.