Zschäbitz S and Niegisch G. Urologe A 2020 - Review.
The approval of the PD‑1 and PD-L1 (programmed cell death [ligand] 1) antibodies pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and atezolizumab has fundamentally changed the therapeutic landscape of locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) are the standard of care in second-line treatment if not already used in first line. They replace conventional chemotherapeutics such as vinflunine, paclitaxel, or docetaxel and offer a superior toxicity profile. This article provides an
overview of current second-line treatment strategies for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma.