Schmid SC, et al. Urologe A 2020 - Review.
Perioperative chemotherapy has become a standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer and is recommended by national and international guidelines. The treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer evolved by the use of immune-modulating therapies like checkpoint inhibitors. Many clinical trials have been initiated which try to evaluate the role of immune checkpoint inhibition in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. These trials focus not only on monotherapy, but also on the combination of
checkpoint inhibitors with classical chemotherapy or with local radiation therapy (radioimmunotherapy). In neoadjuvant radioimmunotherapy, the radiation is supposed to act as a sensitizer for the systemic effects of checkpoint inhibition, in addition to the local effects. This review presents and discusses current trials and published results for perioperative immunomodulating treatment-alone or in combination-in muscle invasive bladder cancer.