Garau M, et al. Colomb Med (Cali) 2019.
BACKGROUND: Uruguay is the south American country which has the highest cancer incidence and mortality rates. The National Cancer Registry collects data on cancer cases nationwide since 1989 and has reached high quality standards in the last decades. This is the first report on incidence trends.
METHODS: Data from the National Cancer Registry of all new cases of invasive cancer from twelve sites diagnosed in 2002-2015 was analyzed. Age-standardized rates were calculated. Trends of incidence rates were analyzed using joinpoint regression models.
RESULTS: For both, men and women, incidence rates trends for all cancer sites, colo-rectal and bladder cancer remained stable. Esophageal and gastric cancers descended while thyroid and kidney cancer incidence increased. In men lung cancer decreased; testicular cancer increased, and prostate cancer increased at the beginning of the period and decreased in the final years. In women, lung cancer increased, breast cancer remained stable and cervical cancer presented a significant decline from 2005 to 2010 and reached a plateau since then.
CONCLUSION: Cancer incidence dynamics are complex and affected not only by Public Health policies such as tobacco control, vaccination and screening programs, but also by environmental and life style changes and the attitude of the medical community towards the application of diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The aim of this paper is to analyze cancer incidence time trends in the country and provide possible explanations to them.