Ashrafizadeh M, et al. Eur J Pharmacol 2020 - Review.
Bladder cancer accounts for high morbidity and mortality around the world and its incidence rate is suggested to be higher in following years. A number of factors involve in bladder cancer development such as lifestyle and drugs. However, it appears that genetic factors play a significant role in bladder cancer development and progression. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a cancer-related transcription factor that is corelated with reduced proliferation and invasion of cancer cells by
negatively targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In the present review, we aimed to explore the role of PTEN in bladder cancer cells and how upstream modulators affect PTEN in this life-threatening disorder. Down-regulation of PTEN is associated with poor prognosis, chemoresistance and progression of cancer cells. Besides, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and other molecular pathways such as NF-kB are able to target PTEN in bladder cancer cells. Notably, anti-tumor drugs such as kaempferol, β-elemene and sorafenib upregulate the expression of PTEN to exert their inhibitory effects on bladder cancer cells.