Roh YG, et al. Cancers (Basel) 2020.
Although the 5-year survival rate of patients diagnosed with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has reached 85%, more than 50% of patients suffer from frequent recurrences. To identify molecular targets associated with recurrence of NMIBC, we analyzed gene expression data and found that FOXM1 and FANCD2 were involved in recurrence. Therefore, we investigated how these genes were involved in the mechanism of recurrence and confirmed their usefulness as biomarkers. Investigation have shown
that FOXM1 directly regulated the transcription of FANCD2, which is the key gene of the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway. Depletion of FOXM1 resulted in DNA repair defects in the FA pathway and in decreased resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, the FANCD2-associated FA pathway activated by FOXM1 is an important mechanism involved in chemotherapy-related recurrence. In conclusion, FOXM1 and FANCD2 can be used as prognostic factors that are associated with high risk of recurrence and with anticancer drug resistance properties in NMIBC patients.