Molecular Genetic Features of Primary Nonurachal Enteric-type Adenocarcinoma, Urachal Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Intestinal Metaplasia/Adenoma: Review of the Literature and Next-generation Sequencing Study

Bladder Cancer
11/06/2020

Pires-Luis AS, et al. Adv Anat Pathol 2020.

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder may be challenging in routine practice. These tumors may morphologically and immunohistochemically overlap with urachal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Further, their genetic background is poorly understood. We systematically searched the PubMed database for results of complex genetic evaluation of primary bladder adenocarcinoma subtypes. Subsequently, we designed our own series of bladder lesions. We evaluated 36


cases: 16 primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas, 7 urachal enteric adenocarcinomas, 3 primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas, and 10 intestinal-type metaplasia/villous adenoma. Detailed clinical data were collected, and all cases were examined using targeted next-generation sequencing. On the basis of the literature, the first mutated gene in these tumors was reported to be KRAS in 11.3% of cases, followed by TERT promoter mutations in 28.5%. In addition to KRAS and TERT, other genes were also found to be frequently mutated in primary bladder adenocarcinoma, including TP53, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, APC, FBXW7, IDH2, and RB1. In our series, the most frequent gene mutations in primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas were as follows: TP53 (56%); BRCA2, KMT2B (both 33%); NOTCH2, KDR, ARID1B, POLE, PTEN, KRAS (all 28%); in urachal enteric adenocarcinoma they were as follows: TP53 (86%); PTEN, NOTCH (both 43%); in primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas they were as follows: KRAS, GRIN2A, AURKB (all 67%); and, in intestinal-type metaplasia/villous adenoma, they were as follows: APC, PRKDC (both 60%); ROS1, ATM, KMT2D (all 50%). No specific mutational pattern was identified using cluster analysis for any of the groups. Herein, we describe the pathologic features and immunohistochemical staining patterns traditionally used in the differential diagnoses of glandular lesions of the bladder in routine surgical pathology. We outline the mutational landscape of these lesions as an aggregate of published data with additional data from our cohort. Although diagnostically not discriminatory, we document that the most common genetic alterations shared between these glandular neoplasms include TP53, APC (in the Wnt pathway), and KRAS (in the MAPK pathway) mutations.