Gul ZG, et al. Urology 2020.
OBJECTIVE: To review differences in bladder and renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes between men and women, and to summarize the evidence that explains these differences.
METHODS: A review of the current literature was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar.
RESULTS: The incidence of bladder cancer and RCC is higher in men. Historically higher smoking rates among men explain some but not all of the difference in incidence. Hormonal and genetic factors also contribute. In bladder cancer, the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor beta have been associated with gender and tumor characteristics. In RCC the relationships are less well defined. In both bladder cancer and RCC, differences in gene mutation patterns among men and women, particularly among genes located on the X-chromosome, have also been identified. Differences in the work-up and treatment of men and women with bladder cancer and RCC also contribute to gender disparities.
CONCLUSION: Research to better delineate how the hormonal axis and genetics contribute to disparities in bladder cancer and RCC incidence and outcomes will allow for more individualized medicine. Appreciation of barriers to diagnosis and treatment will identify opportunities to improve patient care.