Predictive value of MCM5 (ADXBLADDER) analysis in urine of men evaluated for the initial diagnosis of bladder cancer: A comparative prospective study

Bladder Cancer

Anastasi E, et al. Diagn Cytopathol 2020.


BACKGROUND: To compare predictive value of MCM5 to urinary cytology (UC) for the primary diagnosis of bladder cancer (BCa).

METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 91 patients who presented macroscopic hematuria or persistent lower urinary tract symptoms at our institution. Single voided mid-stream urine specimens were collected for UC and MCM5 (ADXBLADDER; Arquer Diagnostics Ltd, Sunderland, United Kingdom) assessment. Cystoscopy was used as confirmatory test, and positive cases underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor with histopathological evaluation.

RESULTS: Forty cases (43.9%) showed a positive cystoscopy for BCa. Histology was obtained in 37 cases: 16 (43.2%) high-grade (HG) and 21 (56.8%) low-grade (LG) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). UC had a sensitivity of 62.5%, specificity of 86.3%, PPV of 78.1% and NPV of 74.6%. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MCM5 were 60.0%, 88.2%, 80.0% and 73.8%, respectively. According to tumor grade, MCM5 and UC showed a sensitivity of 47.6% and 52.4% in LG, and 87.5% and 75.0%, respectively, in HG TCC. False-positive rates were 11.8% and 13.7% of negative cases for BCa with MCM5 and UC test, whereas false-negative results were found in 40.0% and 37.5% of BCa cases, respectively. The combination of the two tests showed a sensitivity of 71.4% in LG, and 93.8% in HG TCC.

CONCLUSION: In the present analysis, MCM5 showed lower sensitivity than UC in predicting BCa primary diagnosis. According to tumor grade, MCM5 showed a higher sensitivity in the detection of HG BCa compared to UC, although values were not significantly different.