Mikhaylenko DS, et al. J Oncol 2020 - Review.
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is widely used for diagnosing hereditary cancer syndromes. Often, exome sequencing and extended gene panel approaches are the only means that can be used to detect a pathogenic germline mutation in the case of multiple primary tumors, early onset, a family history of cancer, or a lack of specific signs associated with a particular syndrome. Certain germline mutations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that determine specific clinical phenotypes may occur in
mutation hot spots. Diagnosis of such cases, which involve hereditary cancer, does not require NGS, but may be made using PCR and Sanger sequencing. Diagnostic criteria and professional community guidelines developed for hereditary cancers of particular organs should be followed when ordering molecular diagnostic tests for a patient. This review focuses on urological oncology associated with germline mutations. Clinical signs and genetic diagnostic laboratory tests for hereditary forms of renal cell cancer, prostate cancer, and bladder cancer are summarized. While exome sequencing, or, conversely, traditional molecular genetic methods are the procedure of choice in some cases, in most situations, sequencing of multigene panels that are specifically aimed at detecting germline mutations in early onset renal cancer, prostate cancer, and bladder cancer seems to be the basic solution for molecular genetic diagnosis of hereditary cancers.