Nedjadi T, et al. Sci Rep 2020.
The identification of clinically-relevant early diagnostic and prognostic protein biomarkers is essential to maximize therapeutic efficacy and prevent cancer progression. The aim of the current study is to determine whether aberrant plasma protein profile can be applied as a surrogate tool for early diagnosis of bladder carcinoma. Plasma samples from patients with low grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and healthy controls were analyzed using combined 2D-DIGE and mass-spectrometry to
identify differentially expressed proteins. Validation was performed using western blotting analysis in an independent cohort of cancer patients and controls. Fifteen differentially-expressed proteins were identified of which 12 were significantly up-regulated and three were significantly down-regulated in tumors compared to controls. The Ingenuity Pathways Analysis revealed functional connection between the differentially-expressed proteins and immunological disease, inflammatory disease and cancer mediated through chemokine and cytokine signaling pathway and NF-kB transcription factor. Among the three validated proteins, haptoglobin was able to distinguish between patients with low grade bladder cancer and the controls with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC > 0.87). In conclusion, several biomarker proteins were identified in bladder cancer. Haptoglobin is a potential candidate that merit further investigation to validate its usefulness and functional significance as potential biomarkers for early detection of bladder cancer.