A study on prostate movement and dosimetric variation because of bladder and rectum volumes changes during the course of image-guided radiotherapy in prostate cancer

Bladder Cancer

Gurjar OP, et al. Prostate Int 2020.


AIM: To study the impact of bladder and rectum volume changes on prostate positioning and the dosimetric parameters.

BACKGROUND: Prostate is a moving organ, and its position is also affected by bladder and rectum volumes. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is being practiced widely for the treatment of prostate carcinoma (Ca). So, it is important to accurately study the effect of bladder and rectum volume changes in treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with Ca prostate were included in this study, and all were treated with 50 Gray (Gy) in 25 fractions for the first phase of treatment. A total of 750 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) sessions were performed. Prostate position w.r.t. its day one position was noted, and the bladder and rectum volumes were compared with their volumes on day one. Also, repeat CT was done for five patients after 10 fractions. The initial plan was imported as it was on the repeat CT images, and a hybrid plan was prepared by putting the plan isocenter at the relative anatomical reference point in repeat CT images as it was in primary CT images. The multileaf collimators (MLC) fluence was put as it is, and the dose was calculated using the monitoring units (MU), which were in the initial plan. Doses to bladder, rectum, and the target were analyzed.

RESULTS: The mean prostate motion in lateral and anterior-posterior direction was found to be 0.71 (±0.69) centimeter cm) and 0.77 (±0.57) cm, respectively. The mean change in bladder and rectum volumes as compared to that in day one CT images was found to be 110.51 (±84.25) cubic centimeters (cc) and 10.89 (±10.17) cc, respectively. No significant variation was observed in the doses to bladder, rectum, and the target volume in a hybrid plan, as compared to that in actual initial plan.

CONCLUSIONS: Bladder and rectum volume affects the position of prostate, rather the dosimetric parameters, and therefore, it can be concluded that daily CBCT should be done for accurate IGRT delivery to the prostate cancer.