An ensemble approach of urine sediment image analysis and NMP22 test for detection of bladder cancer cells

Bladder Cancer

Cho EJ, et al. J Clin Lab Anal 2020.


BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the second most common urological cancer in Korean males. Current diagnostic tools for bladder cancer include cystoscopy (an upper tract study), urine cytology, and nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) test. In this study, we evaluated the detection rate of atypical/malignant urothelial cells in urinary sediment images when flagged for positive NMP22 test.

METHODS: NMP22 was measured by NMP22 BladderChek Test (Abbott Laboratories) and urine chemical and sediment analysis were performed by fully automated cobas 6500 urine analyzer (Roche Diagnostics). Specimens that met the manual microscopic examination (MME) criteria were then subjected to an on-screen review of images. We subsequently reviewed sediment images and examined under the microscopy for the flagged cases.

RESULTS: Of the 1217 patients, 345 (28.3%) had positive NMP22 results, whereas 872 (71.7%) had negative results. Out of the positive results, 154 (12.7%) were positive and 191 (15.7%) weakly positive for NMP22. Screened review of flagged specimens (ie, positive NMP22 result) with sediment imaging analysis revealed that suspicious urothelial carcinoma cells were detected in only two cases (0.8%). In the NMP22 negative flagged cases, the suspicious neoplastic cells were not found.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the NMP22 test should be added to the flagging criteria for MME to improve diagnostic accuracy. The combination of urine sediment imaging analysis and NMP22 test can significantly assist technicians in the review of specimens.