Intraoperative upper urinary tract cytology examination is a risk factor of upper urinary tract recurrence in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer
15/07/2020

Fujita N, et al. Urol Oncol 2020.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of intraoperative upper urinary tract (UUT) cytology examination in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) who had undergone transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 414 patients with NMIBC who had undergone transurethral resection of bladder tumor between November 1993 and April 2019. Patients with simultaneous UUT urothelial carcinoma (UC) detected via computed tomography were excluded. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who had undergone intraoperative bilateral UUT cytology examination via retrograde catheterization (study group) and those who had not (control group). We evaluated the utility of intraoperative UUT cytology examination, comparing surgical outcomes and perioperative complications between the 2 groups. In addition, we evaluated the impact of UUT cytology examination on UUT recurrence using background-adjusted multivariate analysis.

RESULTS: We obtained 292 UUT urine samples from 146 patients with a median age of 72 years. Of 292 UUT urine samples, 11 (3.7%) were positive and 3 were finally diagnosed as UUT UC. Positive predictive value and false positive rate were 18% and 3.1%, respectively. Operative time for the study group was significantly longer than for the control group. Rate of perioperative complications were not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, in background-adjusted multivariate analysis, intraoperative UUT cytology examination was associated with significantly shorter UUT recurrence-free survival.

CONCLUSION: Intraoperative UUT cytology examination may not be recommended as a result of low positive predictive value due to contamination and UUT recurrence risk in patients with NMIBC.