Supplementary Oral Anamorelin Mitigates Anorexia and Skeletal Muscle Atrophy Induced by Gemcitabine Plus Cisplatin Systemic Chemotherapy in a Mouse Model

Bladder Cancer

Cancers (Basel). 2020 Jul 17;12(7):E1942. doi: 10.3390/cancers12071942.


Chemotherapy-induced adverse effects can reduce the relative dose intensity and quality of life. In this study, we investigated the potential benefit of supplementary anamorelin and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) as preventive interventions against a gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) combination chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in a mouse model. Non-cancer-bearing C3H mice were randomly allocated as follows and treated for 2 weeks-(1) non-treated control, (2) oral anamorelin alone, (3) oral

5-ALA alone, (4) gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) chemotherapy, (5) GC plus anamorelin, and (6) GC plus 5-ALA. GC chemotherapy significantly decreased body weight, food intake, skeletal muscle mass and induced severe gastric mucositis, which resulted in decreased ghrelin production and blood ghrelin level. The supplementation of oral anamorelin to GC chemotherapy successfully mitigated decrease of food intake during the treatment period and body weight loss at day 8. In addition, analysis of the resected muscles and stomach revealed that anamorelin suppressed chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by mediating the downregulation of forkhead box protein O-1 (FOXO1)/atrogin-1 signaling and gastric damage. Our findings suggest the preventive effect of anamorelin against GC combination chemotherapy, which was selected for patients with some types of advanced malignancies in clinical practice.