J Clin Med. 2020 Aug 3;9(8):E2494. doi: 10.3390/jcm9082494.
The treatment of solid cancers with pharmacological all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) concentrations, even if it is a gold standard therapy for the acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), is not always effective due to some resistance mechanisms. Here the resistance to ATRA treatment of T24 cell line, bladder cancer, was investigated. T24 was not only resistant to cell death when treated at concentrations up to 20 µM of ATRA, but it was also able to stimulate the cellular proliferation. An over-expression of the fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) in conjunction with the cellular retinol-binding protein-II (CRABP-II) down-expression was found. However, the direct inhibition of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) did not abolish T24 proliferation, but rather potentiated it. Moreover, considering the ability of the long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to displace ATRA from FABP5, the actions of the saturated palmitic acid (PA), unsaturated omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) and omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were evaluated to counteract ATRA-related proliferation. ATRA-PA co-treatment induces cellular growth inhibition, while ATRA-LA co-treatment induces cellular growth enhancement. However, even if DHA is unsaturated LCFA as LA, it was able to reverse the ATRA-induced cellular proliferation of T24, bringing the viability percentages at the levels of the control.