Ann Diagn Pathol. 2020 Aug 14;48:151593. doi: 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2020.151593. Online ahead of print.
The urinary bladder may be involved by a variety of secondary tumors that originate from other organs. Bladder secondary tumors are rare and may be mistaken as bladder primary tumors because of their overlapping morphologic features. To avoid the diagnostic pitfalls, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features of bladder secondary tumors in a large cohort of patients. Our patient cohort consisted of 45 females and 38 males with a mean age of 58.7 ± 15.4 years (range 10-87 years). The tumors
involved the bladder via direct extension from adjacent organs (n = 42) and distant metastasis (n = 41). In females, the majority of secondary tumors originated from the gynecologic tract (n = 25), and other common origins included the colon/rectum (n = 5) and breast (n = 4). In males, the most common origin was the prostate (n = 18), followed by the colon/rectum (n = 4) and kidney (n = 3). 75.9% of the secondary tumors were adenocarcinoma (n = 63), and other common tumor types included sarcoma (n = 6), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 5), melanoma (n = 4), and neuroendocrine carcinoma (n = 3). 67.5% of patients (n = 56) died of the disease with a median overall survival of 23 months from the time of secondary involvement of the bladder. Patients with secondary tumors via direct extension had a median survival time of 20 months, which was not significantly different from that for patients with secondary involvement via distant metastasis (24 months) (p = 0.83). Median survival in cases with prostate primary was 20 months as compared to 23 months for all other tumor types (p = 0.68). The majority of secondary tumors are composed of adenocarcinoma, which highlights the importance of differentiating primary from secondary involvement in bladder adenocarcinoma. Regardless of the origin, bladder secondary tumors are associated with a poor prognosis.