Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Aug 23;21(17):E6072. doi: 10.3390/ijms21176072.
Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Although nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancers have a good prognosis, muscle-invasive bladder cancers promote metastases and have a poor prognosis. Comprehensive analyses using RNA sequence of clinical tumor samples in bladder cancer have been reported. These reports implicated the candidate genes and pathways that play important roles in carcinogenesis and/or progression of bladder cancer. Further investigations for the function of
each mutation are warranted. There is suggestive evidence for several environmental factors as risk factors of bladder cancer. Environmental factors such as cigarette smoking, exposure to chemicals and gases, bladder inflammation due to microbial and parasitic infections, diet, and nutrition could induce several genetic mutations and alter the tumor microenvironment, such as immune cells and fibroblasts. The detailed mechanism of how these environmental factors induce carcinogenesis and/or progression of bladder cancer remains unclear. To identify the relationship between the mutations and the lifestyle could be useful for prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.