Predictors of Intravesical Recurrence After Radical Nephroureterectomy and Prognosis in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

Bladder Cancer

Cancer Manag Res. 2020 Aug 19;12:7439-7450. doi: 10.2147/CMAR.S261087. eCollection 2020.


PURPOSE: We investigate factors that may contribute individually to bladder recurrence and find out the potential candidate to receive postoperative single dose intravesical chemotherapy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 217 patients who were diagnosed with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) underwent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) between 2012 and 2016 in a single hospital. The possible risk factors that may contribute to development of bladder recurrence and overall survival were analysed. In order to find out the relationship between 1st bladder recurrence timing and outcome, we divided the 54 of 56 patients (2 patients with prophylactic intravesical chemotherapy excluded) with bladder recurrence after RNU into 2 groups, using the median time of 1st bladder recurrence and confirmed with the "minimum P-value" approach. The primary endpoint was the development of relapsing high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). The predictive factors of early recurrence and prognostic factors of survival were also analysed.

RESULTS: Among 217 patients with UTUC under RNU, intravesical recurrence occurred in 56 (25.8%) patients after a median follow-up of 35.2 (1.18-83.34) months. On multivariable analysis, the preoperative ureter manipulation (p=0.009) was a significant predictor for the development of bladder tumours. As for overall survival, renal rein invasion (p=0.017), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (p=0.021), and main tumour size (p=0.015) were significant predictors. For 54 patients who developed bladder recurrence, the optimal cut-off point of early recurrence was determined to be 10 months after surgery (p=0.042). Preoperative ureter manipulation (p=0.005) and tumour located both pelvicalyceally and ureterically (P=0.042) were identified as independent factors associated with early recurrence. An end-stage renal disease history and surgical margin positive patient has more late bladder recurrence.

CONCLUSION: Bladder recurrence was common in UTUC after RNU. Early bladder recurrence was associated with more relapsing high-risk NMIBC and preoperative ureter manipulation was identified as an independent factor associated with early recurrence.