The Sex Bias of Cancer

Bladder Cancer

Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Sep 5:S1043-2760(20)30140-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2020.07.002. Online ahead of print.


In hormone-dependent organs, sex hormones and dysregulated hormone signaling have well-documented roles in cancers of the breast and female reproductive organs including endometrium and ovary, as well as in prostate and testicular cancers in males. Strikingly, epidemiological data highlight significant differences between the sexes in the incidence of various cancers in nonreproductive organs, where the role of sex hormones has been less well studied. In an era when personalized medicine is

gaining recognition, understanding the molecular, cellular, and biological differences between men and women is timely for developing more appropriate therapeutic interventions according to gender. We review evidence that sex hormones also shape many of the dysregulated cellular and molecular pathways that lead to cell proliferation and cancer in nonreproductive organs.