Int J Urol. 2020 Sep 28. doi: 10.1111/iju.14372. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the potential therapeutic benefit of a second transurethral resection for high-grade Ta bladder cancer.
METHODS: From January 2009 to August 2019, 521 patients with bladder tumors underwent initial transurethral resection procedures at Kagawa University Hospital. Patients diagnosed with high-grade Ta bladder cancer considered to have been resected completely were included in this study. Recurrence and progression rates were compared between patients who received a second transurethral resection and those who did not.
RESULTS: We identified 97 eligible patients, including 22 patients who received a second transurethral resection. In terms of clinical characteristics, the proportion of patients with bladder cancer and upper urinary tract tumor history was lower in the second transurethral resection group than in the no second transurethral resection group (P < 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). The histopathological findings of 22 transurethral resection procedures were no cancer in 13 (59.2%), Ta in six (27.2%) and carcinoma in situ in three patients (13.6%). After the second transurethral resection, one patient (4.6%) had recurrent high-grade T1 bladder cancer. The no second transurethral resection group showed a 44% recurrence rate (33 patients), including five patients (6.7%) with progression, and consequently, had a higher rate of recurrence than in the second transurethral resection group (P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that no second transurethral resection was the independent predictive factor influencing recurrence (hazard ratio 8.662, P = 0.04). The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that a second transurethral resection significantly decreased the recurrence rate than that of patients without a second transurethral resection (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: A second transurethral resection can reduce the recurrence rate in high-grade Ta bladder cancer, showing a possible therapeutic benefit of this procedure.