Trends in utilization of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer
30/09/2020

Investig Clin Urol. 2020 Sep 8. doi: 10.4111/icu.20200132. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Previous studies have noted increased utilization of perioperative chemotherapy over time. The goal of this study was to determine trends in perioperative chemotherapy use within a contemporary population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients diagnosed with cT2-4N0M0 urothelial muscle invasive bladder cancer from 2011 to 2015 and underwent subsequent radical cystectomy. We retrospectively analyzed factors associated with perioperative chemotherapy and evaluated overall treatment trends in the use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Linear regression, logistic regression, Cox regression, and Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed.

RESULTS: In total, 7,101 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. The use of perioperative chemotherapy increased from 46.4% in 2011 to 57.2% in 2015 (p=0.003). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy use increased from 22.9% to 32.3% (p=0.007) over the time period analyzed, while adjuvant chemotherapy use experienced no significant change (23.5% to 24.9%, p=0.182). Logistic regression demonstrated that increased age and Charlson Comorbidity Index were predictors of not receiving chemotherapy (p<0.05), while those with increasing T stage, income above $48,000, and insurance other than Medicaid or Medicare were more likely to receive perioperative chemotherapy (p<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had the best 5-year overall survival at 48.3% compared to adjuvant chemotherapy (42.6%) or no chemotherapy (37.8%) (p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: The increasing use of perioperative chemotherapy noted in prior studies has continued through 2015. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy appears to drive this increase while adjuvant chemotherapy utilization remains unchanged. Clinical and socioeconomic factors affect utilization of perioperative chemotherapy.