Incidence and outcome of salvage cystectomy after bladder sparing therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Bladder Cancer

World J Urol. 2020 Sep 29. doi: 10.1007/s00345-020-03436-0. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the available literature regarding the surgical and oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing salvage radical cystectomy (SV-RC) for recurrence or failure of bladder sparing therapy (BST) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and Google Scholar databases in May 2020. We included all studies of patients with ≥ cT2N0/xM0 bladder cancer that were eligible for all treatment modalities at the time of treatment decision who underwent BST including radiotherapy (RTX). A meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled rate of several variables associated with an increased need for SV-RC. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using MINORS criteria.

RESULTS: 73 studies comprising 9110 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. Weighted mean follow-up time was 61.1 months (range 12-144). The pooled rate of non-response to BST and local recurrence after BST, the two primary reasons for SV-RC, was 15.5% and 28.7%, respectively. The pooled rate of SV-RC was 19.2% for studies with a follow-up longer than 5 years. Only three studies provided a thorough report of complication rates after SV-RC. The overall complication rate ranged between 67 and 72% with a 30-day mortality rate of 0-8.8%. The pooled rates of 5 and 10-year disease-free survival after SV-RC were 54.3% and 45.6%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Approximately one-fifth of patients treated with BST with a curative intent eventually require SV-RC. This procedure carries a proportionally high rate of complications and is usually accompanied by an incontinent urinary diversion.