Comparison of Outcomes Between Radical Radiotherapy and Radical Cystectomy in Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer in a Cancer Specialized Unit of a Developing Country

Bladder Cancer
01/10/2020

Cureus. 2020 Aug 26;12(8):e10057. doi: 10.7759/cureus.10057.

ABSTRACT

Introduction Radical cystectomy (RC) is the current standard of care for treating muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), however bladder preservation by offering radical radiotherapy (RT) is gaining interest for improving the quality of life while maintaining a reasonable oncological outcome. In this study, we have compared outcomes of the two treatment options. Materials and methods This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study that included all patients who were treated for histologically


proven muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the department of uro-oncology at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre from January 2005 to January 2015. Data was analysed using Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), version 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The primary end point of our study was to calculate the three- and five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results A total of 230 patients were included in the study with male gender predominating (88%). The mean and standard deviation for age was 58.32+11.128. Radical cystectomy was performed in 119 patients while 111 received RT. Clinically, 34% had stage 2 disease, while 66 % had stage 3 cancer. The median follow-up duration was 41 months (range: 2-155). During follow-up 57.4% of patients showed no recurrence. Local recurrence was found in 9.6% patients and distant metastasis in 32.2%. The three-year DFS of RC was 63% and that of RT was 57% while the five-year DFS for RC and RT were 60% and 49%, respectively (p=0.196). The three-year OS of RC was 64% and that for RT was 58%. On further analysis the five-year OS of RC was 53% and that for RT was 50% (p=0.98). Upon stage-based comparisons, we found no statistically significant difference between the three- and five-year DFS and OS of stage 2 and stage 3 when treated with either modality. Conclusion Most studies favor RC and consider it as the gold standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder tumor treatment. The current study reveals that bladder preservation approach by chemo radiotherapy is a viable treatment option, having comparable oncological outcomes with patients receiving radical cystectomy, and can be offered to patients having muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer.