Jpn J Radiol. 2020 Oct 8. doi: 10.1007/s11604-020-01051-y. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To explore the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in controlling intractable, nontraumatic bladder hemorrhage in cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review (PubMed and EMBASE), followed by a retrospective analysis of all cancer patients with intractable hematuria from bladder treated by TAE at our tertiary referral center.
RESULTS: At our institution, 27 consecutive cancer patients who underwent TAE for refractory hematuria from bladder were identified. The systematic review included 13 studies published between 1981 and 2019. In our local cohort, 27 patients were treated with 100% technical success, clinical success in 88.9%, no major complications, and rebleeding rate within the first month of 7.4%. In the systematic review cohort of 201 patients, there was technical success in 99.0%, clinical success in 80.9%, major complications in 5.5%, and a rebleeding rate within the first month of 4.5%. Bilateral embolization was performed in 81.1%, and embolization levels were mostly anterior division of internal iliac artery (73.7%) and vesical artery (23.2%).
CONCLUSION: TAE is effective and safe to control intractable hematuria from bladder origin in cancer patients after failure of conservative management, providing effective temporary hemostasis. For bladder hemorrhage unsuitable for surgery, TAE should be considered at an early stage. A literature review, followed by retrospective analysis of all patients with intractable hematuria from bladder treated by transcatheter arterial embolization at our tertiary referral center. Transcatheter arterial
embolization is effective and safe to control intractable hematuria from bladder. The major complication rate and rebleeding within the first month are acceptable.