Comparison of renal function after open radical cystectomy, extracorporeal robot assisted radical cystectomy, and intracorporeal robot assisted radical cystectomy

Bladder Cancer

Urol Oncol. 2020 Oct 6:S1078-1439(20)30440-3. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.09.018. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: Renal function outcomes following robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) have not been well established. We sought to compare long-term renal function outcomes between open radical cystectomy, RARC with extracorporeal urinary diversion and intracorporeal urinary diversion at a high volume institution.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our institutional bladder cancer database for patients who underwent RC from 2010 to 2019 with pre-operative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 45 ml/min/1.73m2. Changes in renal function were assessed through locally weighted scatter plot smoothing and comparison of median eGFR between surgical groups. Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3B was defined as eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73m2. Renal function decline was defined as a ≥10 ml/min/1.73m2 drop in eGFR. Kaplan Meier method with log-rank was used to compare CKD 3B-free survival and renal function decline. Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to identify predictors of CKD 3B.

RESULTS: Six hundred and forty four patients were included with median follow-up of 32 months (IQR 12-56). Preoperative characteristics were similar among the groups with no differences in median pre-operative eGFR (ORC: 74.6, extracorporeal urinary diversion: 74.3, intracorporeal urinary diversion: 71.6 ml/min/1.73m2, P=0.15). Median postoperative eGFR on follow up was not different between groups (P=0.56). 33% of patients developed CKD 3B. There were no differences in CKD 3B-free survival by surgical approach (P = 0.23) or urinary diversion (P = 0.09). 64% of patients experienced renal function decline with a median time of 2.4 years (P 0.23). Predictors of CKD were pathologic T3 disease or greater (HR: 1.77, P = 0.01), ureteroenteric anastomotic stricture (HR: 2.80, P < 0.001), preoperative CKD Stage 2 (HR: 1.81, P =0.02), and preoperative CKD Stage 3A (HR: 5.56, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Renal function decline is common after RC. Tumor stage, pre-operative eGFR, and ureteral stricture development, not surgical approach, influence renal function decline.