Urologe A. 2020 Oct 12. doi: 10.1007/s00120-020-01368-6. Online ahead of print.
With the advent of novel high throughput-sequencing technologies we gained greater insights into the complex and diverse interactions of the microbiome for health and disease in the human body. The concept of urinary sterility has long been dismissed and now we strive for deciphering various microbial signatures associated with a disease. A dysbalance of the microbiome appears to have a substantial impact on the pathogenesis of both malignant and benign conditions. Novel preventive and
therapeutic approaches and biomarker systems have been proposed for prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer based on microbiome analyses. The exclusion of a microbial origin was always part of the diagnosis of benign disorders such as interstitial cystitis, urinary urge incontinence or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Now we are certain that an imbalanced microbial profile plays an essential role for the pathogenesis and disease management of these challenging conditions.