The comprehensive complication index is associated with a significant increase in complication severity between 30 and 90 days after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer

Eur J Surg Oncol. 2020 Oct 5:S0748-7983(20)30831-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2020.09.040. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the true cumulative morbidity after RC by implementing the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) over a 90-day period, since recent evidence suggests underreporting of the cumulative morbidity after radical cystectomy (RC) with inconsistent complication rates when reported with conventional reporting systems.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of 433 patients with bladder cancer who underwent RC were retrospectively reviewed over a 90-day period. Clinical variables were assessed and complications were graded by the Clavien-Dindo Classification (CDC). The resulting 30- and 90-day CCI-scores were calculated and compared for each patient. Multivariable regression models for developing at least one severe (‚Č•CDC IIIb) complication were designed.

RESULTS: Overall, 848 complications were recorded in 371 patients (85.7%). Severe complications occurred in 130 patients (30%) and the cumulative morbidity corresponded to the level of a severe complication in 159 patients (36.7%), meaning an upgrade in 6.7% of patients compared to the CDC. The 90-day CCI (24.2 (median, IQR 20.9-39.7)) was higher than the 30-day CCI (22.6 (median, IQR 8.7-39.7)), (p < 0.001). Comorbidity indices (ASA, ACE 27), BMI, and incontinent urinary diversions were independent risk factors for suffering a severe complication within 90 days post-surgery.

CONCLUSION: The cumulative morbidity (CCI) after RC seems to be higher than previously reported with CDC, especially over a 90-day period. The CCI is an appropriate assessment-tool with an upgrade in morbidity in a significant proportion of patients when compared to the CDC. BMI, several comorbidity indices, and incontinent urinary diversions are independent risk factors for suffering a severe complication after RC.