Urothelial-phase thin-section MDCT of the bladder in patients with hematuria: added value of multiplanar reformatted images

Bladder Cancer

Abdom Radiol (NY). 2020 Oct 20. doi: 10.1007/s00261-020-02819-6. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MDCT with axial images and multiplanar reformatted (MPR) images from the urothelial phase of the bladder in patients with hematuria using cystoscopy as the reference standard.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our IRB for human investigation approved this study, and informed consent was waived. We included 192 patients (121 men, 71 women; age range 17-90 years; mean age ± SD: 60 ± 14 years) who underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT (scan delay: 70 s; section thickness: 2 mm) and conventional cystoscopy examination for painless gross hematuria or recurrent microscopic hematuria. Two radiologists in consensus interpreted the images for the presence or absence of bladder lesions. Using the kappa statistic, the patient-based agreement was determined between the CT and cystoscopic findings. We compared the diagnostic performance of axial images to those with coronal and sagittal reformations to detect bladder lesions.

RESULTS: MDCT showed excellent agreement between cystoscopy-axial scans (κ = 0.896) and axial with reformatted images (κ = 0.948). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MDCT were 94%, 96%, and 95% in the axial scans and 98%, 97%, and 97% in the axial with reformatted images, respectively. All statistical parameters of diagnostic performance were similar between the axial and the reformatted images (p > .05).

CONCLUSION: Axial MDCT imaging demonstrates high diagnostic performance in detecting bladder lesions, but additional reformatted images can improve diagnostic accuracy.