Heliyon. 2020 Oct 8;6(10):e05192. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05192. eCollection 2020 Oct.
OBJECTIVES: Pomegranate juice (PJ) is rich in important compounds with anti-cancer activities. This study aims to investigate the preventive effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) against bladder cancer (BC).
METHODS: Eighty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly classified into 4 equal groups: (1) Normal controls; (2) PJ group: supplied by PJ for 12 weeks; (3) Cancer-induced group: intake 0.05% v/v N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN) for 8 weeks; (4) Cancer-prevented group: BBN + PJ. After 12 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and their urinary bladder tissues were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical (p53) examinations, expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and the tumor protein p53 (TP53) and analysis of oxidative stress markers.
RESULTS: The development of BC was: 0/20 (0%) in normal, PJ and cancer-prevented groups and 20/20 (100%) in cancer-induced group. Significant neoplastic lesions were observed in cancer-induced group. Mild preneoplastic alterations were noticed in 25% (5/20) of cancer-prevented group. p53 immunostaining were significantly elevated in the cancer-induced group, which was decreased in the cancer-prevented group. The relative expressions of IL-6, TNF-α, HIF-1 and TP53 were significantly lower in the cancer-prevented group compared to the cancer-treated group. Correction in the oxidative stress markers were also observed in the cancer-prevented group.
CONCLUSION: PJ possesses a promising inhibitory effect on BC development, probably due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.