Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Oct 19;21(20):E7726. doi: 10.3390/ijms21207726.
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) consists of transcriptional subtypes that are distinguishable from those of muscle-invasive cancer. We aimed to identify genetic signatures of NMIBC related to basal (K5/6) and luminal (K20) keratin expression. Based on immunohistochemical staining, papillary high-grade NMIBC was classified into K5/6-only (K5/6High-K20Low), K20-only (K5/6Low-K20High), double-high (K5/6High-K20High), and double-low (K5/6Low-K20Low) groups (n = 4 per group). Differentially expressed genes identified between each group using RNA sequencing were subjected to functional enrichment analyses. A public dataset was used for validation. Machine learning algorithms were implemented to predict our samples against UROMOL subtypes. Transcriptional investigation demonstrated that the K20-only group was enriched in the cell cycle, proliferation, and progression gene sets, and this result was also observed in the public dataset. The K5/6-only group was closely regulated by basal-type gene sets and showed activated invasive or adhesive functions. The double-high group was enriched in cell cycle arrest, macromolecule biosynthesis, and FGFR3 signaling. The double-low group moderately expressed genes related to cell cycle and macromolecule biosynthesis. All K20-only group tumors were classified as UROMOL "class 2" by the machine learning algorithms. K5/6 and K20 expression levels indicate the transcriptional subtypes of NMIBC. The K5/6Low-K20High expression is a marker of high-risk NMIBC.