Cancer Manag Res. 2020 Oct 23;12:10491-10504. doi: 10.2147/CMAR.S278612. eCollection 2020.
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are commonly known to be derived from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but recently there have been more and more literature describing lesions with similar pathological and immunohistochemical resembling GISTs but located outside the GI tract, and they have been termed as extra-GISTs (eGISTs). However, due to the rare incidence of eGISTs, its association with survival outcomes is poorly understood, especially in the Chinese population. Here, we aimed to identify the risk factors of eGISTs and to assess their association with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of pathologically confirmed eGISTs cases, without radiological and perioperative evidence of other primary lesions, and with no microscopically identified adhesion between the tumor and the gastrointestinal serosa, which were surgically treated between January 2006 and September 2017 were retrieved from the database of four high-volume hospitals. Immunohistochemical and genetic testing were performed on the postoperative lesions and were staged using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria.
RESULTS: A total of 55 cases were retrieved. eGISTs were identified from the retroperitoneum (36.4%), mesocolon (25.5%), small bowel mesentery (12.7%), abdominopelvic cavity (12.7%), lesser omental sac (5.5%), ovary (3.6%), pancreatic capsule (1.8%), or urinary bladder (1.8%). Based on the NIH risk classification, majority of the lesion were classified as high risk (85.5%). KIT 11 was the most common mutation site (76.5%) and 25.0% of the cases were wild-type eGISTs. Multivariate analyses showed that tumor location and size were independent factors affecting prognoses. Patients with tumors in the retroperitoneum had significantly poorer OS and DFS as compared to those in the non-retroperitoneum (HR [95% CI] for OS and DFS: 2.546 [1.023-6.337] [P = 0.037] and 2.475 [0.975-6.273] [P = 0.049], respectively). Similar findings were found for tumors of size >15 cm, compared to ≤15 cm (HR [95% CI] for OS and DFS: 5.350 [2.022-14.156] [P < 0.001] and 3.861 [1.493-9.988] [P = 0.003], respectively).
CONCLUSION: eGISTs were predominantly found from the retroperitoneum and mostly classified as high risk. Those located in the retroperitoneum and of size >15 cm had the poorer OS and DFS as compared to those in the non-retroperitoneum and of size <15 cm.