Investig Clin Urol. 2020 Nov;61(6):539-554. doi: 10.4111/icu.20200317.
At present, proteomic methods have successfully identified potential biomarkers of urological malignancies, such as prostate cancer (PC), bladder cancer (BC), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), reflecting different numbers of key cellular processes, including extracellular environment modification, invasion and metastasis, chemotaxis, differentiation, metabolite transport, and apoptosis. The potential application of proteomics in the detection of clinical markers of urological malignancies can help
improve patient assessment through early cancer detection, prognosis, and treatment response prediction. A variety of proteomic studies have already been carried out to find prognostic BC biomarkers, and a large number of potential biomarkers have been reported. It is worth noting that proteomics research has not been applied to the study of predictive markers; this may be due to the incompatibility between the number of measured variables and the available sample size, which has become particularly evident in the study of therapeutic response. On the contrary, prognostic correlation is more common, which is also reflected in existing research. We are now entering an era of clinical proteomics. Driven by proteomic-based workflows, computing tools, and the applicability of cross-correlation of proteomic data, it is now feasible to use proteomic analysis to support personalized medicine. In this paper, we will summarize the current emerging technologies for advanced discovery, targeted proteomics, and proteomic applications in BC, particularly in discovery of human-based biomarkers.