Restricted mean survival time as outcome measure in advanced urothelial bladder cancer: analysis of 4 clinical studies

Bladder Cancer

Immunotherapy. 2020 Nov 5. doi: 10.2217/imt-2020-0160. Online ahead of print.


Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in advanced urothelial carcinoma. Materials & methods: We selected seven cohorts of patients published in four clinical trials. The restricted mean survival time (RMST) was used to analyze survival curves, perform the comparisons and rank the treatments based on their effectiveness. The performance of RMST was compared with that of a network meta-analysis. Results: Three ICIs, vinflunine and best standard care, given as second line, were examined. ICIs significantly improved overall survival compared with best standard care. However, the survival gain was quite limited (up to 2.27 months). Post hoc pairwise comparisons were calculated. Conclusion: Our results summarized the efficacy of these treatments and confirmed the good methodological performance of RMST.