Robot-assisted radical cystectomy with neobladder formation

Bladder Cancer

Urologiia. 2020 Nov;(5):54-60.


INTRODUCTION: Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with intracorporeal neobladder formation is a complex surgical procedure.

AIM: To describe the main stages of RARC and to analyze its short-term results.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: RARC with ileocystoplasty was performed in 16 patients, most of whom were men (n=14). In 15 patients, the indication for surgery was bladder cancer (BCa), while one patient has radiation-induced sigmoid fistula with a formation of small, contracted bladder. During radical cystectomy (RC), the lower ureters were dissected, followed by posterior dissection of the bladder with mobilization from both sides to the pelvic fascia, clipping and transection of the vesical pedicles, and suturing of the dorsal venous complex with urethral dissection. After pelvic lymph node dissection, 40 cm of the ileum was resected, after that two distal segments of 15 cm were U-shaped, and a 1.5 cm incision was made in the lower part of the bowel, followed by a formation of the urethral anastomosis. Then bowel segments were detubularized, and continuous suture on the posterior and anterior walls of the neobladder was done. Ureters were implanted in the proximal tubular part of the resected colon according to the Nesbit technique.

RESULTS: The mean operation time was 380 minutes. The blood loss ranged from 80 to 200 ml; however, blood transfusion was not performed. Complications during 30-days after RARC were observed in 7 (43.7%) patients, including 4 (25%) of class I-II according to Clavien - Dindo, and 3 (18.7%) of class III-IV. In patients with leakage at the uretero- intestinal anastomosis (n=2) and urethro-neobladder anastomosis (n=1), percutaneous drainage was performed, which allowed to resolve these complications. There were no cases of bowel obstruction. One patient with gastrointestinal bleeding required blood transfusion. The 90-day late complications occurred in 6 (37.5%) patients, including 2 cases of upper urinary tract infection. One patient died of acute myocardial infarction.

CONCLUSION: RARC is a contemporary minimally invasive method for muscle-invasive BCa. Stepwise approach to RARC with intracorporeal neobladder formation may reduce the operation time and the rate of complications.