Bladder Cancer. 2020 Sep 21;6(3):225-235. doi: 10.3233/BLC-200277.
Bladder cancer is a highly prevalent disease worldwide and is associated with a high mortality rate. Across all stages of bladder cancer, immunotherapy has now become the cornerstone of treatment. The commensal microbiome has become a major focus of research given its impact on numerous states of human health and disease. Many links between commensal microbes and immune function have been reported. Recently a commensal urinary microbiome has been identified and characterized in healthy
individuals by several research groups. The urinary microbiome is now emerging as an important factor influencing bladder cancer development and therapeutic responsiveness. In this report, we identify findings from important clinical and mechanistic studies on the urinary microbiome and future opportunities to impact prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.