Diosgenin and 4-Hydroxyisoleucine from Fenugreek Are Regulators of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in The Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line SW480

Colorectal Cancer

Mohammad-Sadeghipour M, et al. Cell J 2021.


OBJECTIVE: Diosignin and 4-hydroxy-L-isulosine (4-OH-Ile) are the two active ingredients of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum). Thus, in this study, we examined the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds (HEFS), diosgenin and 4-OH-Ile on the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) which are involved in lipid metabolism in SW480 cell line.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, SW480 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and treated with HEFS, diosignin, 4-OH-Ile or orlistat for 24 and 48 hours. Inhibitory concentration of 20% (IC20) was calculated using MTT method and cells were then pre-treated with the IC20 concentrations for 24 and 48 hours before RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Changes in the expression of ACC, FAS, PPARγ and LDLR genes were assayed by employing the real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

RESULTS: Our results showed a significant down-regulation in the expression of ACC (P<0.001 and P<0.001 after 24 and 48 hours, respectively) and FAS genes (P<0.001 and P<0.001 after 24 and 48 hours, respectively) in SW480 cells treated with HEFS, diosignin, 4-OH-Ile, or orlistat, but significant up-regulation in the expression of PPARγ (P<0.001 and P<0.001 after 24 and 48 hours, respectively) and LDLR (P=0.005 and P=0.001 after 24 and 48 hours, respectively).

CONCLUSION: According to the results of the present study, HEFS, diosgenin and 4-OH-Ile up or down-regulate the expression of some predominant genes involved in lipid metabolism pathway, similar to that observed for orlistat. These types of regulatory effects are presumably proper for the treatment of obesity and overweight.