Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevalence by Stool DNA Integrity Detection

Colorectal Cancer
22/06/2020

Rengucci C, et al. J Vis Exp 2020.

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, stool DNA can be isolated and analyzed by several methods. The long fragments of DNA in stool can be detected by a qPCR assay, which provides a reliable probability of the presence of pre-neoplastic or neoplastic colorectal lesions. This method, called fluorescence long DNA (FL-DNA), is a fast, non-invasive procedure that is an improvement upon the primary prevention system. This method is based on evaluation of fecal DNA integrity by quantitative amplification of specific targets of


genomic DNA. In particular, the evaluation of DNA fragments longer than 200 bp allows for detection of patients with colorectal lesions with very high specificity. However, this system and all currently available stool DNA tests present some general issues that need to be addressed (e.g., the frequency at which tests should be carried out and optimal number of stool samples collected at each timepoint for each individual). However, the main advantage of FL-DNA is the possibility to use it in association with a test currently used in the CRC screening program, known as the immunochemical-based fecal occult blood test (iFOBT). Indeed, both tests can be performed on the same sample, reducing costs and achieving a better prediction of the eventual presence of colorectal lesions.