L1CAM, CA9, KLK6, HPN, and ALDH1A1 as Potential Serum Markers in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Screening

Colorectal Cancer

Tieng FYF, et al. Diagnostics (Basel) 2020.


BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening at the earlier stages could effectively decrease CRC-related mortality and incidence; however, accurate screening strategies are still lacking. Considerable interest has been generated in the detection of less invasive tests requiring a small sample volume with the potential to detect several cancer biomarkers simultaneously. Due to this, the ELISA-based method was undertaken in this study.

METHODS: Concentrations of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM), carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), mesothelin (MSLN), midkine (MDK), hepsin (HPN), kallikrein 6 (KLK6), transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 (ALDH1A1), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) from blood serum of 36 primary CRC and 24 metastatic CRC (mCRC) were calculated via MAGPIX® System (Luminex Corporation, USA).

RESULTS: Significantly increased concentration (p < 0.05) of three serum biomarkers (L1CAM, CA9, and HPN) were shown in mCRC when compared with primary CRC. HPN and KLK6 showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in concentration among different stages of CRC. In contrast, levels of HPN and ALDH1A1 were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in chemotherapy-treated CRC patients as compared with nontreated ones. Conclusion: Serum biomarkers could act as a potential early CRC diagnostics test, but further additional testings are needed.