A phase I/II study of S-1 and irinotecan (IRIS) combined with cetuximab in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (KSCC1401)

Colorectal Cancer

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2020 Jul 30. doi: 10.1007/s00280-020-04108-x. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the tolerability, efficacy, and safety of tri-weekly irinotecan plus S-1 (IRIS) and weekly cetuximab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).

METHODS: The main eligibility criteria were RAS wild-type mCRC with no prior chemotherapy. S-1 was given orally at a dose of 40 mg/m2 (40-60 mg) twice for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week rest. Irinotecan was given on day 1 of each cycle at a dose of 150 mg/m2. Cetuximab was administered on days 1 (400 mg/m2), 8 (250 mg/m2), and 15 (250 mg/m2), and then once weekly (250 mg/m2) thereafter. A standard 3 + 3 phase I dose de-escalation design was used to determine the maximum tolerated dose and the recommended dose (RD) of irinotecan. The primary end point of the Phase II study was overall response rate (ORR).

RESULTS: Between December 2014 and September 2017, 4 and 54 patients were enrolled in phase I and phase II studies, respectively. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed in the phase I study, and the RD of irinotecan was 150 mg/m2. In the phase II study, the ORR was 56.9% (90% confidence interval 44.4%-68.7%). The safety profile revealed that the most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (31.4%), appetite loss (27.5%), hypokalemia (11.8%), and diarrhea (11.8%). Grade 3/4 hand-foot skin syndrome occurred in nine patients (9.8%).

CONCLUSION: This study showed that the efficacy and safety of IRIS combined with cetuximab were comparable to those for other first-line treatments. This regimen is a good candidate for first-line treatment of RAS wild-type mCRC.