Cells. 2020 Aug 9;9(8):E1864. doi: 10.3390/cells9081864.
Global DNA hypomethylation is a characteristic feature of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The tumor inhibitory effect of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyl donor has been described in certain cancers including CRC. However, the molecular impact of SAM treatment on CRC cell lines with distinct genetic features has not been evaluated comprehensively. HT-29 and SW480 cells were treated with 0.5 and 1 mmol/L SAM for 48 h followed by cell proliferation measurements, whole-genome transcriptome and
methylome analyses, DNA stability assessments and exome sequencing. SAM reduced cell number and increased senescence by causing S phase arrest, besides, multiple EMT-related genes (e.g., TGFB1) were downregulated in both cell lines. Alteration in the global DNA methylation level was not observed, but certain methylation changes in gene promoters were detected. SAM-induced γ-H2AX elevation could be associated with activated DNA repair pathway showing upregulated gene expression (e.g., HUS1). Remarkable genomic stability elevation, namely, decreased micronucleus number and comet tail length was observed only in SW480 after treatment. SAM has the potential to induce senescence, DNA repair, genome stability and to reduce CRC progression. However, the different therapeutic responses of HT-29 and SW480 to SAM emphasize the importance of the molecular characterization of CRC cases prior to methyl donor supplementation.