Gene-Diet Interactions in Colorectal Cancer: Survey Design, Instruments, Participants and Descriptive Data of a Case-Control Study in the Basque Country

Colorectal Cancer
13/08/2020

Nutrients. 2020 Aug 7;12(8):E2362. doi: 10.3390/nu12082362.

ABSTRACT

Epidemiologic studies have revealed inconsistent evidence of gene-diet interaction in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to analyze them in a sample of cases and controls from the population-based bowel cancer screening program of the Osakidetza/Basque Health Service. This study analyzed dietetic, genetic, demographic, socioeconomic factors and lifestyles. In the present manuscript, the survey design, sampling, instruments, measurements and related quality management


were presented. Moreover, we analyze differences between cases and controls in some data, especially those related to diet. The participants were 308 cases and 308 age- and sex-matched subjects as controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have overweight/obesity (67.5% vs. 58.1%, p < 0.05), a lower intake of vitamin B2 (0.86 ± 0.23 vs. 0.92 ± 0.23 mg/1000 kcal, p < 0.01) and calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.62 ± 0.12 vs. 0.65 ± 0.13, p < 0.01). A higher proportion of cases than controls did not meet the Nutritional Objectives for saturated fatty acids (85.7% vs. 67.5%, p < 0.001) or cholesterol (35.4% vs. 25.0%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, the present study provides valuable data for analyzing the complexity of gene-diet interaction in relation to CRC. The results presented here suggest that overweight/obesity and a high intake of certain dietary components, especially saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, are more frequent in cases than in controls.