Theoretically designed interventions for colorectal cancer prevention: a case of the health belief model

Colorectal Cancer

BMC Med Educ. 2020 Aug 17;20(1):270. doi: 10.1186/s12909-020-02192-4.


BACKGROUND: According to the WHO, most chronic diseases, including cancer, can be prevented by identifying their risk factors such as unhealthy diet, smoking and physical inactivity. This research examined the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention on colorectal cancer-related preventive nutritional behaviors among a sample of organizational staff.

METHODS: In this interventional study, 110 employees of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were randomly divided into two groups (intervention and control) with cluster sampling. The data gathering tool was a researcher-made questionnaire containing two parts of 10-dimensional information and health belief model constructs. The educational intervention was conducted for 1 month and in four sessions in the form of classroom lecture, pamphlet, educational text messages via mobile phones and educational pamphlets through the office automation system. Two groups were evaluated in two stages, pre-test and post-test. Data were analyzed using SPSS-18 software, analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and independent t-test (intergroup comparisons).

RESULTS: Two groups were evaluated for variables such as age, sex, education level and family history of colorectal cancer, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). After the 2 months since intervention, except for the mean score of perceived barriers, which was not significant after intervention, the mean scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and preventive behaviors were significantly increased after the intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Implementation of educational intervention based on health belief model was effective for the personnel, and can enhance the preventative nutritional behaviors related to colorectal cancer.