Int J Colorectal Dis. 2020 Aug 28. doi: 10.1007/s00384-020-03731-7. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Although the effectiveness of antiemetic therapy for colorectal cancer chemotherapy has improved with further drug development, some patients still suffer from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) even with only 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. The present study investigated the risk factors of CINV in patients who received chemotherapy for colorectal cancer and clarified which patients need additional neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist.
METHODS: Patients with colorectal cancer receiving moderate-emetic-risk chemotherapy (MEC) were enrolled in this prospective single-arm study with intravenous palonosetron 0.75 mg and dexamethasone 9.9 mg before chemotherapy and with paroral dexamethasone 8 mg on days 2 and 3. The primary endpoint was the complete response (CR) rate for delayed-phase CINV.
RESULTS: A total of 179 patients were eligible for this study. The delayed CR rate was 84.9% (152/179). There were no significant differences in any risk factors, but women with a low body mass index (BMI) (a combination of "female sex" and "BMI < 20") showed a significantly lower rate of CC (complete control) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17-1.13; p = 0.039), and young patients with a low BMI (combination of "age < 65" and "BMI < 20") showed a significantly lower rate of CR (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.13-0.88; p = 0.022) than the other patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to identify any single risk factors associated with delayed CINV in patients who received chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. However, combinations of "thin and women" or "young and thin patients" might be possible predictive conditions, thus, candidates for NK1 receptor antagonist administration in MEC. Further investigations are required to develop criteria for the supplementation of NK1 receptor antagonist.