Superior outcomes of nodal metastases compared to visceral sites in oligometastatic colorectal cancer treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy

Colorectal Cancer

Radiother Oncol. 2020 Aug 28:S0167-8140(20)30730-1. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2020.08.012. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SBRT) is a radical option for oligometastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, but most data relate to visceral metastases.

METHODS: A prospective, multi-centre database of CRC patients treated with SBRT was interrogated. Inclusion criteria were ECOG PS 0-2, ≤ 3 sites of disease, a disease free interval of > 6 months unless synchronous liver metastases. Primary endpoints were local control (LC), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

RESULTS: 163 patients (172 metastases) were analysed. The median FU was 16 months (IQR 12.2 - 22.85). The LC at 1 year was 83.8% (CI 76.4% - 91.9%) with a PFS of 55% (CI 47% - 64.7%) respectively. LC at 1 year was 90% (CI 83% - 99%) for nodal metastases (NM), 75% (63% - 90%) for visceral metastases (VM). NM had improved median PFS (9 vs 19 months) [HR 0.6, CI 0.38 - 0.94, p = 0.032] and median OS (32 months vs not reached) [HR 0.28, CI 0.18 - 0.7, p = 0.0062] than VM, regardless of whether the NM were located inside or outside the pelvis. On multivariate analysis, NM and ECOG PS 0 were significant good prognostic factors. An exploratory analysis suggests KRAS WT is also a good prognostic factor.

CONCLUSION: Nodal site is an important prognostic determinant of SBRT that should incorporated into patient selection. We hypothesise this may have an immunoediting basis.